Is the Polish population greatly different from the rest?
This is an exceptionally difficult task, because there is not so much WGS data for other populations of the world - there is whole-genome data available only for a few dozen populations in total. The most comprehensive source still remains The Thousand Genomes Project (TGP). On the basis of common genetic markers for the Polish population and the data available under the TGP project, coefficients characterizing the genetic structure of six populations (5 populations available under the TGP project and the Polish population) were determined. Then, the data for the Polish population were applied to the data from the TGP project.
It turned out that the structure of the Polish population is homogeneous and continuously coincides with the European population. The European subpopulations of GBR (British) and CEU (people of European origin living in the American state of Utah) are closest to the Polish population.
What do the graphs above show? The affiliation of samples to the continental and European subpopulations based on the coefficients characterizing the genetic structure of the population. Graph A presents a comparison of the first and second coefficients characterizing the populations in the continental aspect; while graph B presents the comparison of the first and third coefficients characterizing the populations in the continental aspect; Graph C shows the comparison of the first and second coefficients characterizing the populations for European subpopulations; and graph (D) - a comparison of the first and third coefficients characterizing the populations for European subpopulations.
The Thousand PolishGenomes Project - a national database of Polish variant allele frequencies" is a unique scientific project, the aim of which was to create the first database of genetic variants of Poles and Polish women. The presented results come from this project.
Find out more about the TGP project:
P.S. Of course, there exists data that is less extensive than WGS analyzes from other populations, but with a much larger sample size, for example in 23andMe or FTDNA collections. In this project, however, we focused only on data from genome-wide projects. Remember that the The Thousand PolishGenomes project is open to more discoveries by other research groups in the upcoming groups, and the presented results are only the tip of the iceberg.